Accessibility NextGen: A Guide to the Siteimprove accessibility checks

Modified on: Mon, 4 Oct, 2021 at 9:56 AM

Why have the checks been updated in NextGen?

The NextGen product has been implemented with a new set of web accessibility checks, based on our participation in the WAI-Tools Project developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).

WAI-Tools is a collaborative, three-year project to innovate accessibility testing alongside a consortium of key players in the accessibility industry, national authorities, and the W3C.

WAI-Tools was established in 2017 as a response to the Horizon 2020 programme—Europe’s largest research and innovation program—and its call for innovation in the area of accessibility compliance assessment, in conjunction with the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the standards body that publishes the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1.

The mission was to:

  • Improve consistency and accuracy of automated, semi-automated, and manual accessibility testing
  • Demonstrate large-scale web accessibility monitoring built on open standards
  • Pursue leading technologies for website testing, including dynamic content and mobile web applications

For us at Siteimprove, our participation in the development and harmonization of an internationally-recognized testing standard is to deliver:

  • Reliability: Users will experience one single point of truth.
  • Accuracy: Users will be able to test their websites against standardized accessibility conformance testing rules.
  • Transparency: Users will have full insight into how our accessibility checks work.

What are the ACT Rules?

All our accessibility checks are based on the Accessibility Conformance Rules (ACT) Format 1.0 adopted by the W3C in 2019.

The outcome of the WAI-Tools project is a set of harmonized accessibility conformance testing rules (ACT) to meet the success criteria under the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG 2.1).

Do the new ACT checks provide the same coverage of WCAG for testing?

Yes. The checks, based on the ACT Rules Format 1.0, provide the same overall coverage of the WCAG success criteria.
In addition, we have several new automated checks for WCAG 2.1.

Why are there fewer rules in NextGen?

Our development team has been working on the new ruleset, over the course of the last three years as part of the WAI-Tools Project. A lot of hard, rigorous research and work has gone into defining this new set of accessibility conformance rules in conjunction with the W3C and others, (ACT Rules Format 1.0) and it is still ongoing. There has been room for reassessment, rewriting and innovation.

Our team looked at the original intention of all our checks and the use cases and applications, which at the time, may have been more stringent and limited: for instance, when <img> was the only way to code an image, and the alt attribute was the only way to add a descriptive name.

At the time, the checks were far more stringent in their acceptance of a pass of WCAG success criteria. However, we now take in stride that there are multiple ways of coding an image to achieve conformance, and we wanted our tool to reflect and support this.

As a result, there are overall fewer checks in NextGen, but the checks we have now – as you can see - are more encompassing: meaning, they catch more failures, and accept more ways of passing the WCAG success criteria.

This leads to more true positives and fewer false positives.

The example below shows how we’ve redesigned the checks by creating a single check in NextGen that accounts for three different ways of creating an image and assigning it a name

Example:
<img aria-label="Hello world">
<img role="img" alt="Hello world">
 <img role="img" aria-label="Hello world">

These are perfectly accessible and valid ways to code an image with a text alternative, though the second and third examples are bad practice, given the <img> element already has an implicit role of "img" if no role is specified.

In the old accessibility product, we had two checks: one that checks for alt attribute for <img> elements, and the other checks for “ARIA-label” or “aria-labelledby” on a role=”img”.

In NextGen, we now have a single check that looks at semantic images, and this includes both <img> and role=”img” and then checks if there is an accessible name, i.e. both the alt attribute (which only applies to <img>) and aria-label or aria-labelledby attribute, which applied to either <img> or role=”img”.

So, where all three examples fail one of the checks in the old accessibility module, i.e. the check looking for an alt attribute – however, they all pass the new rule in NextGen.

The number of checks cannot be used as a measure for quality of accessibility testing. Quantity is neither a requirement nor a precursor for quality.

How do the new checks compare to the old checks?

We want you to trust the accuracy and reliability of the accessibility checks within the NextGen product.  Here is a breakdown of:

  • New - completely new checks under the ACT rules
  • Replaced - old checks replaced by new checks based on the ACT rules
  • Removed - original checks are removed, outdated, or no longer supported
  • N/A – there is no automated check

What are “Accessibility Best Practice” Checks?

These checks relate to requirements that are not covered by existing W3C specifications – meaning WCAG, WAI-ARIA, HTML5, and CSS– and are not normative.  “Normative” means a rule or standard that you can conform to (for instance, conformance to the WCAG success criteria at Levels A, AA, and AAA).

An example of “non-normative” content from the W3C is the information under the “Understanding” WCAG document that is published for each success criterion, for example, “Understanding 1.3.1”.  This has been published as informative guidance on how to meet the normative success criterion of WCAG. 

Some of these “Understanding” documents contain examples of best practices to implement an accessibility fix in your code or content and testing procedures to guide you when reviewing your work. We have used this content as the basis for some of our best practice checks.

Other best practice checks have also been written from research, good user experience, and coding practices.  An example is a check for using all uppercase or italicized text, two practices that we know impact people from a cognitive perspective or those with low vision.

Accessibility Best Practices

StatusAccessibility NextGen checkType

New



Headings aren't properly structured



Issue



New



Page doesn't start with a level 1 heading



Issue



New



Text in all caps



Issue



New



Font size is too small



Issue



New



Overuse of italics



Issue



New



Element marked as decorative is exposed to assistive technologies



Issue



New



Group without an accessible name



Issue


What are " WAI-ARIA authoring practices " Checks?

These checks have been created to detect when WAI-ARIA authoring practices have been used incorrectly – for example, misspelled or a missing role or attributes, or when the value of the state or property is invalid or incorrect.
An example where the role is invalid: if an author chooses to add the ARIA role of "img", but misspelled it as “image”, this would be invalid and ineffective, but is not always a WCAG conformance issue. We flag this to ensure that code is implemented correctly; this also ensures that our tool, which relies on correct ARIA usage, can perform its checks as intended.

WAI-ARIA Best Practices


Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



New



State or property not allowed



Issue



New



Invalid state or property



Issue



New



ARIA attribute does not exist



Issue



New



Content not included in a landmark region



Issue



New



Multiple landmarks with the same accessible name



Issue



New



Landmarks are not uniquely identifiable



Issue



New



Page region without an accessible name



Issue


WCAG Conformance Checks

Principle 1 – Perceivable

1.1 Text Alternatives

1.1.1   Non-Text Content (A)

All non-text content that is presented to the user has a text alternative that serves the equivalent purpose, except for Controls and Input, Time-based Media, Tests, Sensory content, CAPTCHA, Decoration, Formatting or Invisible content.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



N/A



New



Vector image without a text alternative



Issue



Image with no alt attribute


 


WAI-ARIA image is missing alternative text


 


The image does not have the correct alternative



Replaced



Image without a text alternative



Issue



Alternative text for the image is a file name



Replaced



Is this image file name an appropriate text alternative?



Potential issue



Image file name is not an appropriate text alternative



Issue



N/A



New



Decorative image is exposed to assistive technologies



Issue



Image marked as decorative but has "aria-describedby" attribute



Removed



 Why? Not directly related to WCAG



Issue



Image button has no description



Replaced



Image button without a text alternative



Issue



Page element has no description



Replaced



Object without a text alternative



Issue



"Area" element is missing alternative text



Replaced



Link without a text alternative



Issue



Alternative text for image is identical to link text



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Adjacent links used for same destination



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Should image be marked as decorative?



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Image alternatives don't match



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



"Aria-labelledby" has incorrect (ID) reference



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Does the "aria-labelledby" attribute accurately describe the element?



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



"Longdesc" attribute does not link to existing resource 



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Does the "aria-label" attribute accurately describe the element?



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Redundant WAI-ARIA labels



Removed



Why? A valid use case, i.e. not an accessibility violation.



 



Image map without reference



Removed



Why? A valid use case, i.e. not an accessibility violation.  



 


1.2 – Time-based Media

1.2.1 Audio-only and Video-only (Prerecorded)(A)

For prerecorded audio-only and prerecorded video-only media, the following are true, except when the audio or video is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as pre-recorded audio-only, or pre-recorded video-only.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



Type



Does video/audio have an alternative?



Replaced



Does the audio have a transcript?


 


Do visual-only videos have an accessible alternative?



Potential issue



Audio without a transcript



Issue



Visual-only video without an accessible alternative



Issue


1.2.2 Captions (Prerecorded) (A)

Captions are provided for all prerecorded audio content in synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such.



Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



Type



Is multimedia content captioned?


 


 



Replaced



Does this video have captions?



Potential issue



Video without captions



Issue


1.2.3 Audio Description or Media Alternative (Prerecorded) (A)

An alternative for time-based media or audio description of the prerecorded video content is provided for synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



Type



Does multimedia content have an alternative? 


 



Replaced



Has a separate audio alternative been provided?



Potential issue



Video with no alternative to the visual content



Issue


1.2.4 Captions (Live) (AA)

Captions are provided for all live audio content in synchronized media.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A


1.2.5 Audio Description (Prerecorded)(AA)

Audio description is provided for all prerecorded video content in synchronized media.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



Type



Does multimedia content have audio description?



Replaced



Is this video audio-described?



Potential issue



Video is not audio-described



Issue


1.2.6 Sign Language (Prerecorded)(AAA)

Sign language interpretation is provided for all prerecorded audio content in synchronized media.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



1.2.7 Extended Audio Description (Prerecorded)(AAA)


Where pauses in foreground audio are insufficient to allow audio descriptions to convey the sense of the video, extended audio description is provided for all prerecorded video content in synchronized media.



Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A


1.2.8 Media Alternative (Prerecorded)(AAA)

An alternative for time-based media is provided for all prerecorded synchronized media and for all prerecorded video-only media.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



1.2.9 Audio-only (Live)(AAA)


An alternative for time-based media that presents equivalent information for live audio-only content is provided.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A


1.3 - Adaptable

1.3.1 Info and Relationships (A)

Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



 



New



Role not inside the required context



Issue



 



New



No data cells assigned to table header



Issue



 



New



Hidden element has focusable content



Issue



 



New



Empty context role



Issue



No top-level heading on the page



Replaced



Page does not start with a level 1 heading



Accessibility Best Practice Issue



No headings on page



Replaced



Page without headings



Accessibility Best Practice Issue



Heading is missing text



Replaced



Empty heading tags



Issue



Cell references non-existent table heading ID



Replaced



Table headers aren't referenced correctly



Issue



Input field has no description


 


Text area has no description


 


Select box has no description



Replaced



Form field not labeled (4.1.2)



Issue



WAI-ARIA group is missing a name



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Generic landmarks are not named



Replaced



Page region without an accessible name.



WAI-ARIA Best Practices Issue



Form elements are not grouped


 


Can options logically be grouped together?



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



HTML is used to format content



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Should the table have a description?



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Reference to non-existent image map



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Does the table have clearly defined headers?



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Could a standard landmark be used?



Removed



Why? The Old check is best suited as a manual test performed on a sample of pages



 



"u" tag used to format text



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Are landmarks appropriately applied?



Removed



Why? The Old check is best suited as a manual test performed on a sample of pages



 



Does the "aria-labelledby" attribute accurately describe the landmark?



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Label is not connected to a form control



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



"b" tag used to format text



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



"i" tag used to format text



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



"Small" tag used to alter text size


 


Is the "small" tag correctly used?



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Form control label is missing text



Removed



Why? It has been replaced by a more appropriate check that looks for accessible names.



 



Access key is not unique



Removed



Why? Access keys are not widely supported nor widely used.



 



"Aria-labelledby" has incorrect (ID) reference



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



"Aria-describedby" has incorrect (ID) reference



Removed



Why? While accessible names are often a requirement, accessible descriptions are not.



 



Do "aria-describedby" attributes provide additional information?



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Local link destination does not exist



Removed



Why? There are use cases for using local links for interactive purposes, rather than internal linking (e.g. an anchor link on a page.)



 


1.3.2 Meaningful Sequence (A)

When the sequence in which content is presented affects its meaning, a correct reading sequence can be programmatically determined.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A


1.3.3 Sensory Characteristics (A)

Instructions provided for understanding and operating content do not rely solely on sensory characteristics of components such as shape, color, size, visual location, orientation, or sound.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A


1.3.4 Orientation (AA)

Content does not restrict its view and operation to a single display orientation, such as portrait or landscape, unless a specific display orientation is essential.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



 



New



Page orientation is locked



Issue


1.3.5 Identify Input Purpose (AA)

The purpose of each input field collecting information about the user can be programmatically determined when:

  • The input field serves a purpose identified in the Input Purposes for User Interface Components section; and
  • The content is implemented using technologies with support for identifying the expected meaning for form input data.

Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



 



New



Autocomplete does not work as intended



Issue


1.3.6 Identify Purpose (AAA)

In content implemented using markup languages, the purpose of User Interface Components, icons, and regions can be programmatically determined.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A


1.4 – Distinguishable

Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background.

1.4.1 Use of Color (A)

Color is not used as the only visual means of conveying information, indicating an action, prompting a response, or distinguishing a visual element.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



Type



Link only identified by color


 



Replaced



Are links clearly identifiable?



Potential issue



Links are not clearly identifiable



Issue


1.4.2 Audio Control (A)

If any audio on a Web page plays automatically for more than 3 seconds, either a mechanism is available to pause or stop the audio, or a mechanism is available to control audio volume independently from the overall system volume level.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



Are there options to control audio that auto-plays?



Replaced



Can the audio be switched off?



Potential Issue



Audio plays automatically and can't be switched off



Issue


1.4.3 Contrast (Minimum) (A)

The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1, except for the following:

  • Large Text: Large-scale text and images of large-scale text have a contrast ratio of at least 3:1;
  • Incidental: Text or images of text that are part of an inactive user interface component, that are pure decoration, that are not visible to anyone, or that are part of a picture that contains significant other visual content, have no contrast requirement.
  • Logotypes: Text that is part of a logo or brand name has no contrast requirement.

Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



Color contrast is insufficient



Replaced



Is there sufficient contrast between the text and the background?



Potential Issue



Color contrast is not sufficient



Issue


1.4.4 Resize Text (A)

Except for captions and images of text, text can be resized without assistive technology up to 200 percent without loss of content or functionality.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



 



New



Text is clipped when zoomed in



Issue



 



New



Page zoom is restricted



Issue


1.4.5 Images of Text (A)

If the technologies being used can achieve the visual presentation, text is used to convey information rather than images of text except for the following:

  • Customizable: The image of text can be visually customized to the user's requirements;
  • Essential: A particular presentation of text is essential to the information being conveyed.

Note 1: Logotypes (text that is part of a logo or brand name) are considered essential.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



Is the image free of text?



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 


1.4.6 Contrast (Enhanced) (AAA)

The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 7:1, except for the following:

  • Large Text: Large-scale text and images of large-scale text have a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1;
  • Incidental: Text or images of text that are part of an inactive user interface component, that are pure decoration, that are not visible to anyone, or that are part of a picture that contains significant other visual content, have no contrast requirement.
  • Logotypes: Text that is part of a logo or brand name has no contrast requirement.

Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



Color contrast is insufficient



Removed



Focus on AA color contrast



 


1.4.7 Low or No Background Audio (AAA)


For prerecorded audio-only content that (1) contains primarily speech in the foreground, (2) is not an audio CAPTCHA or audio logo, and (3) is not vocalization intended to be primarily musical expression such as singing or rapping, at least one of the following is true:

  • No Background: The audio does not contain background sounds.
  • Turn Off: The background sounds can be turned off.
  • 20 dB: The background sounds are at least 20 decibels lower than the foreground speech content, with the exception of occasional sounds that last for only one or two seconds. Per the definition of "decibel," background sound that meets this requirement will be approximately four times quieter than the foreground speech content.

Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A


1.4.8 Visual Presentation (AAA)

For the visual presentation of blocks of text, a mechanism is available to achieve the following:

  • Foreground and background colors can be selected by the user.
  • Width is no more than 80 characters or glyphs (40 if CJK).
  • Text is not justified (aligned to both the left and the right margins).
  • Line spacing (leading) is at least space-and-a-half within paragraphs, and paragraph spacing is at least 1.5 times larger than the line spacing.
  • Text can be resized without assistive technology up to 200 percent in a way that does not require the user to scroll horizontally to read a line of text on a full-screen window.

Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



 



New



Uneven spacing in text



Issue



 



New



Line height is below minimum value



Issue



 



New



Font size is fixed



Issue



 



New



Line height is fixed



Issue


1.4.9 Images of Text (No Exception) (AAA)

Images of text are only used for pure decoration or where a particular presentation of text is essential to the information being conveyed.

Note 1: Logotypes (text that is part of a logo or brand name) are considered essential.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A


1.4.10 Reflow (AA) – Added in WCAG 2.1

Content can be presented without loss of information or functionality, and without requiring scrolling in two dimensions for:

  • Vertical scrolling content at a width equivalent to 320 CSS pixels;
  • Horizontal scrolling content at a height equivalent to 256 CSS pixels;
  • Except for parts of the content which require two-dimensional layout for usage or meaning.

Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



 



New



Page zoom is restricted



Issue



 



 



 



 


1.4.11 Non-Text Contrast (AA) – Added in WCAG 2.1

The visual presentation of the following have a contrast ratio of at least 3:1 against adjacent color(s):

  • User Interface Components: Visual information required to identify user interface components and states, except for inactive components or where the appearance of the component is determined by the user agent and not modified by the author;
  • Graphical Objects: Parts of graphics required to understand the content, except when a particular presentation of graphics is essential to the information being conveyed.

Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A


1.4.12 Text Spacing (AA) – Added in WCAG 2.1

In content implemented using markup languages that support the following text style properties, no loss of content or functionality occurs by setting all of the following, and by changing no other style property:

  • Line height (line spacing) to at least 1.5 times the font size;
  • Spacing following paragraphs to at least 2 times the font size;
  • Letter spacing (tracking) to at least 0.12 times the font size;
  • Word spacing to at least 0.16 times the font size.

Exception: Human languages and scripts that do not make use of one or more of these text style properties in written text can conform using only the properties that exist for that combination of language and script.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A


1.4.13 Content on Hover or Focus (AA) – Added in WCAG 2.1

Where receiving and then removing pointer hover or keyboard focus triggers additional content to become visible and then hidden, the following are true:

  • Dismissible: A mechanism is available to dismiss the additional content without moving pointer hover or keyboard focus, unless the additional content communicates an input error or does not obscure or replace other content;
  • Hoverable: If pointer hover can trigger the additional content, then the pointer can be moved over the additional content without the additional content disappearing;
  • Persistent: The additional content remains visible until the hover or focus trigger is removed, the user dismisses it, or its information is no longer valid.

Exception: The visual presentation of the additional content is controlled by the user agent and is not modified by the author.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A


Principle 2 – Operable

2.1 – Keyboard Accessible

Make all functionality available from a keyboard.


2.1.1 Keyboard (A)


All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes, except where the underlying function requires input that depends on the path of the user's movement and not just the endpoints.


Note 1: This exception relates to the underlying function, not the input technique. For example, if using handwriting to enter text, the input technique (handwriting) requires path-dependent input but the underlying function (text input) does not.


Note 2: This does not forbid and should not discourage providing mouse input or other input methods in addition to keyboard operation. 



Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



 



New



Scrollable element is not keyboard accessible



Issue



2.1.2 Keyboard Trap (A)


If keyboard focus can be moved to a component of the page using a keyboard interface, then focus can be moved away from that component using only a keyboard interface, and, if it requires more than unmodified arrow or tab keys or other standard exit methods, the user is advised of the method for moving focus away.


Note 1: Since any content that does not meet this success criterion can interfere with a user's ability to use the whole page, all content on the Web page (whether it is used to meet other success criteria or not) must meet this success criterion. See Conformance Requirement 5: Non-Interference.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



2.1.3 Keyboard Trap (AAA)


All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



2.1.4 Keyboard Shortcuts (A) – added in WCAG 2.1


If a keyboard shortcut is implemented in content using only letter (including upper- and lower-case letters), punctuation, number, or symbol characters, then at least one of the following is true:


  • Turn off: A mechanism is available to turn the shortcut off;
  • Remap: A mechanism is available to remap the shortcut to include one or more non-printable keyboard keys (e.g., Ctrl, Alt);
  • Active only on focus: The keyboard shortcut for a user interface component is only active when that component has focus.

Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



2.2 – Enough Time


Provide users enough time to read and use the content.


2.2.1 Timing Adjustable (A)


For each time limit that is set by the content, at least one of the following is true:

  • Turn off: The user is allowed to turn off the time limit before encountering it; or
  • Adjust: The user is allowed to adjust the time limit before encountering it over a wide range that is at least ten times the length of the default setting; or
  • Extend: The user is warned before time expires and given at least 20 seconds to extend the time limit with a simple action (for example, "press the space bar"), and the user is allowed to extend the time limit at least ten times; or
  • Real-time Exception: The time limit is a required part of a real-time event (for example, an auction), and no alternative to the time limit is possible; or
  • Essential Exception: The time limit is essential and extending it would invalidate the activity; or
  • 20 Hour Exception: The time limit is longer than 20 hours.

Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



Use of automatic redirect after a time delay


 


Use of automatic refresh after a time delay



Replaced



Page refreshes or redirects without warning



Issue



Provide enough time



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



2.2.2 Pause, Stop, Hide (A)

For moving, blinking, scrolling, or auto-updating information, all of the following are true:

  • Moving, blinking, scrolling: For any moving, blinking or scrolling information that (1) starts automatically, (2) lasts more than five seconds, and (3) is presented in parallel with other content, there is a mechanism for the user to pause, stop, or hide it unless the movement, blinking, or scrolling is part of an activity where it is essential; and
  • Auto-updating: For any auto-updating information that (1) starts automatically and (2) is presented in parallel with other content, there is a mechanism for the user to pause, stop, or hide it or to control the frequency of the update unless the auto-updating is part of an activity where it is essential.

Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



"Blink" tag is used



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Do not use 'blink' without the option to stop it



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 


2.2.3 No Timing (AAA)

Timing is not an essential part of the event or activity presented by the content, except for non-interactive synchronized media and real-time events.



Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



2.2.4 Interruptions (AAA)

Interruptions can be postponed or suppressed by the user, except interruptions involving an emergency.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



Use of automatic redirect after a time delay



Replaced



Page refreshes or redirects without warning



Issue



2.2.5 Re-authenticating (AAA)

When an authenticated session expires, the user can continue the activity without loss of data after re-authenticating.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A


2.2.6 Timeouts (AAA) – Added in WCAG 2.1

Users are warned of the duration of any user inactivity that could cause data loss, unless the data is preserved for more than 20 hours when the user does not take any actions.



Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



2.3 – Seizures and Physical Reactions


Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures or physical reactions.


2.3.1 Three Flashes or Below Threshold (A)


Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period, or the flash is below the general flash and red flash threshold.


Note 1: Since any content that does not meet this success criterion can interfere with a user's ability to use the whole page, all content on the Web page (whether it is used to meet other success criteria or not) must meet this success criterion. See Conformance Requirement 5: Non-Interference.



Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



2.3.2 Three Flashes (AAA)


Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period.



Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A


2.3.3 Animations from Interactions (AAA)

Motion animation triggered by interaction can be disabled, unless the animation is essential to the functionality or the information being conveyed.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



2.4 – Navigable

Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are.

2.4.1 Bypass Blocks (A)

A mechanism is available to bypass blocks of content that are repeated on multiple Web pages.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



No option to skip repeated content



Replaced



Is it possible to skip straight to the main content on this page?



Potential Issue



Skip to main content link is missing



Issue



2.4.2 Page Titled (A)

Web pages have titles that describe topic or purpose.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



Webpage has multiple title elements or no title element


 


Webpage title is missing text



Replaced



Page has no title



 Issue



2.4.3 Focus Order (A)


If a Web page can be navigated sequentially and the navigation sequences affect meaning or operation, focusable components receive focus in an order that preserves meaning and operability.



Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



Is the tabbing sequence logical?



Removed



Why? A manual test is required to determine a “logical” sequence.



 



2.4.4 Link Purpose (In Context) (A)


The purpose of each link can be determined from the link text alone or from the link text together with its programmatically determined link context, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



 Link text used for multiple different destinations


Do identical link texts link to the same destination?



Replaced



Do these links (in the same context) point to the same URL?



 Potential Issue



Links in the same context have the same text alternative



Issue



"Area" element is missing alternative text


 


Image link is missing alternative text



Replaced



Link without a text alternative



Issue 



Should adjacent links be combined?



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Does the "aria-label" accurately describe the link?


 


Descriptive 'aria-labelledby' on link



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Link text is too generic in its Old context



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



"Aria-labelledby" has incorrect (ID) reference



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



2.4.5 Multiple Ways (AA)


More than one way is available to locate a Web page within a set of Web pages except where the Web Page is the result of, or a step in, a process.



Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



Navigational link not located in document "head"



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



2.4.6 Headings and Labels (AA)


Headings and labels describe topic or purpose.



Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



Form control label is missing text



Removed



Why? It has been replaced by a more appropriate check that looks for accessible names.



 



2.4.7 Focus Visible (AA)


Any keyboard operable user interface has a mode of operation where the keyboard focus indicator is visible.



Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



Element not highlighted on focus



Replaced



Is it clear which page element has focus from the keyboard?



Potential issue



Keyboard focus indicator is missing



Issue



2.4.8 Location (AAA)


Information about the user's location within a set of Web pages is available.



Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



Navigational link not located in document "head"



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



2.4.9 Link Purpose (Link Only) (AAA)


A mechanism is available to allow the purpose of each link to be identified from link text alone, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general.


 Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



 


 



New



Are these links identical?



Potential issue



Links on the same page with the same text alternative



Issue



"Area" element is missing alternative text


 



Replaced



Link without a text alternative



Issue



2.4.10 Section Headings (AAA)


Section headings are used to organize the content.


Note 1: "Heading" is used in its general sense and includes titles and other ways to add a heading to different types of content.


Note 2: This success criterion covers sections within writing, not user interface components. User Interface components are covered under Success Criterion 4.1.2.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



No headings on page



Replaced



Page has no headings



Issue



2.5 – Input Modalities


Make it easier for users to operate functionality through various inputs beyond the keyboard.


2.5.1 Input Gestures (A) – Added in WCAG 2.1


All functionality that uses multipoint or path-based gestures for operation can be operated with a single pointer without a path-based gesture unless a multipoint or path-based gesture is essential.



Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



2.5.2 Pointer Cancellation (A) – Added in WCAG 2.1


For functionality that can be operated using a single pointer, at least one of the following is true:

  • No Down-Event: The down-event of the pointer is not used to execute any part of the function;
  • Abort or Undo: Completion of the function is on the up-event, and a mechanism is available to abort the function before completion or to undo the function after completion;
  • Up Reversal: The up-event reverses any outcome of the preceding down-event;
  • Essential: Completing the function on the down-event is essential

Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



2.5.3 Label in Name (A) – Added in WCAG 2.1


For user interface components with labels that include text or images of text, the name contains the text that is presented visually.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



 



New



Does the accessible name contain the visible label?



Issue



Visible label and accessible name do not match



Issue



2.5.4 Motion Actuation (A) – Added in WCAG 2.1


Functionality that can be operated by device motion or user motion can also be operated by user interface components and responding to the motion can be disabled to prevent accidental actuation, except when:

  • Supported Interface: The motion is used to operate functionality through an accessibility-supported interface.
  • Essential: The motion is essential for the function and doing so would invalidate the activity.

Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



2.5.5 Target Size (AAA) – Added in WCAG 2.1


The size of the target for pointer inputs is at least 44 by 44 CSS pixels except when:

  • Equivalent: The target is available through an equivalent link or control on the same page that is at least 44 by 44 CSS pixels;
  • Inline: The target is in a sentence or block of text;
  • User Agent Control: The size of the target is determined by the user agent and is not modified by the author;
  • Essential: A particular presentation of the target is essential to the information being conveyed.




Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



2.5.6 ConOld Mechanisms (AAA) – Added in WCAG 2.1


Web content does not restrict use of input modalities available on a platform except where the restriction is essential, required to ensure the security of the content, or required to respect user settings.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



Principle 3 – Understandable


3.1 – Readable


Make text content readable and understandable.


3.1.1 Language of Page (A)


The default human language of each Web page can be programmatically determined.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



 



New



Page language tags don't match



Issue



Language of page has not been set



Replaced



Page language has not been identified 



Issue


 


 



Page language not recognized



Issue



3.1.2 Language of Parts (AA)


The human language of each passage or phrase in the content can be programmatically determined except for proper names, technical terms, words of indeterminate language, and words or phrases that have become part of the vernacular of the immediately surrounding text.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



Language declaration is invalid



Replaced



Content language not recognized



Issue



3.1.3 Unusual Words (AAA)


A mechanism is available for identifying specific definitions of words or phrases used in an unusual or restricted way, including idioms and jargon.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



3.1.4 Abbreviations (AAA)


A mechanism for identifying the expanded form or meaning of abbreviations is available.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



3.1.5 Reading Level (AAA)


When text requires reading ability more advanced than the lower secondary education level after removal of proper names and titles, supplemental content, or a version that does not require reading ability more advanced than the lower secondary education level, is available.




Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



3.1.6 Pronunciation (AAA)


A mechanism is available for identifying specific pronunciation of words where the meaning of the words, in context, is ambiguous without knowing the pronunciation.




Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



3.2 Predictable


Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways.


3.2.1 On Focus (A)


When any user interface component receives focus, it does not initiate a change of context.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



3.2.2 On Input (A)


Changing the setting of any user interface component does not automatically cause a change of context unless the user has been advised of the behavior before using the component.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



Select box has no submit button



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Missing button in form



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



3.2.3 Consistent Navigation (AA)


Navigational mechanisms that are repeated on multiple Web pages within a set of Web pages occur in the same relative order each time they are repeated, unless a change is initiated by the user.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



3.2.4 Consistent Identification (AA)


Components that have the same functionality within a set of Web pages are identified consistently.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



3.2.5 Consistent Identification (AA)


Changes of context are initiated only by user request or a mechanism is available to turn off such changes.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



Re-direct occurs in browser



Replaced



Page refreshes or redirects without warning



Issue



3.3 – Input Assistance


Help users avoid and correct mistakes.


3.3.1 Error Identification (A)


If an input error is automatically detected, the item that is in error is identified and the error is described to the user in text.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



N/A



New



Does this form have accessible error indicators?



Potential issue



Form error indicators are not sufficient



Issue



WAI-ARIA validation error is present when page loads



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Aria-atomic="true" missing on error container



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



WAI-ARIA alert is present when page loads



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



3.3.2 Labels or Instructions (A)


Labels or instructions are provided when content requires user input.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



Input field has no description


 


Text area has no description


 


Select box has no description



Replaced



Form field is not labeled (4.1.2)



Issue



Form elements are not grouped



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Field label is not visible



Removed



Why? As other rules are being developed to assess what the original check intended to check.



 



WAI-ARIA group is missing a name



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



"Aria-describedby" has incorrect (ID) reference



Removed



Why? While accessible names are often a requirement, accessible descriptions are not.



 



"Aria-labelledby" has incorrect (ID) reference



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



3.3.3 Error Suggestion (AA)


If an input error is automatically detected and suggestions for correction are known, then the suggestions are provided to the user, unless it would jeopardize the security or purpose of the content.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



WAI-ARIA alert is present when page loads



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



3.3.4 Error Prevention (Legal, Financial Data) (AA)


If an input error is automatically detected and suggestions for correction are known, then the suggestions are provided to the user, unless it would jeopardize the security or purpose of the content.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



3.3.5 Help (AAA)


Context-sensitive help is available.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



3.3.6 Error Prevention (All) (AAA)


For Web pages that require the user to submit information, at least one of the following is true:

  • Reversible: Submissions are reversible.
  • Checked: Data entered by the user is checked for input errors and the user is provided an opportunity to correct them.
  • Confirmed: A mechanism is available for reviewing, confirming, and correcting information before finalizing the submission.

Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



Principle 4 – Robust


4.1 – Compatible


Maximize compatibility with Old and future user agents, including assistive technologies.


4.1.1 Parsing (A)


In content implemented using markup languages, elements have complete start and end tags, elements are nested according to their specifications, elements do not contain duplicate attributes, and any IDs are unique, except where the specifications allow these features.


Note 1: Start and end tags that are missing a critical character in their formation, such as a closing angle bracket or a mismatched attribute value quotation mark are not complete.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



Element ID is not unique



Replaced



Element IDs are not unique



Issue



4.1.2 Name, Role, Value (A)


For all user interface components (including but not limited to: form elements, links and components generated by scripts), the name and role can be programmatically determined; states, properties, and values that can be set by the user can be programmatically set; and notification of changes to these items is available to user agents, including assistive technologies.


Note 1: This success criterion is primarily for Web authors who develop or script their own user interface components. For example, standard HTML controls already meet this success criterion when used according to specification.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen check



Type



 



New



Are these inline frames identical?



Potential issue



 



Multiple inline frames with the same text alternative



Issue



 



New



Button without a text alternative



Issue



 



New



Hidden element has focusable content



Issue



 



New



Inline frame without a text alternative



Issue



Input field has no description


 


Text area has no description


 


Select box has no description



Replaced



Form field is not labeled



 Issue



Invalid WAI-ARIA role, state or property



Replaced



Invalid role



 Issue



Missing required WAI-ARIA states or properties



Replaced



Required ARIA attribute is missing



 Issue



iFrame is missing a title



Replaced



 


Iframe without a text alternative


 



 Issue



Do WAI-ARIA roles match the functionality of the element?



Removed



Why? The Old check is best suited as a manual test performed on a sample of pages.



 



Redundant WAI-ARIA attribute



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Does the "aria-label" attribute accurately describe the interface control?



Removed



Why? The Old check is best suited as a manual test performed on a sample of pages.



 



Frame is missing a description



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



Form control label is missing text



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



"Aria-labelledby" has incorrect (ID) reference



Removed



Why? Not directly related to WCAG



 



4.1.3 Status Messages (AA) – Added in WCAG 2.1


In content implemented using markup languages, status messages can be programmatically determined through role or properties such that they can be presented to the user by assistive technologies without receiving focus.


Old product check



Status



Accessibility NextGen



N/A



Manual testing required



N/A



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